Look at the word which in paragraph 5. The word which in the passage refers to

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The Interpretation of Dreams

Sigmund Freud published his groundbreaking book, The Interpretation of Dreams , in 1899, after years of studying the brain as a neurologist. His book marked the real beginnings of research into the human mind, and led to the development of modern psychoanalysis.

Freud’s basic insight that our minds preserve memories and emotions in ways that are not always consciously available to us profoundly and permanently transformed how humans viewed themselves. One of Freud’s most important discoveries was that the repressed thoughts and emotions buried below the level of conscious awareness emerged in dreams, and that dreams could be used to uncover lost feelings.

Before Freud, dreams were dealt with in religious or metaphysical ways. In the Mesopotamian epic, Gilgamesh , written in 2700 B.C., dreams heralded the arrival of gods. In Babylon, Assyria, and Egypt, dreams were considered prophetic ; rulers were known to heed their dreams before making military and other major decisions. The transition from a religious conception of dreams to an attempt at scientific explanation began in Ancient Greece. Pythagoras believed nightmares were caused by spoiled food, and Aristotle considered dreams to be manifestations of the soul, both internal to the individual, as opposed to supernatural interpretations. The European Renaissance initiated scientific inquiry into all manner of things, but it was centuries before scientific principles were applied to the interpretation of dreams. From the 16th to the 19th centuries, the brain was studied as an anatomical object, and by Freud’s time neurologists had already begun to discover correlations between areas of the brain and specific neurological activities. But it remained for Freud to open up the mind, as opposed to the brain, to modern scientific investigation.

Freud’s revelation that dreams might contain useful information came in 1895, when he dreamed about a patient of his whose treatment had not yielded its expected results. By carefully making conscious associations with the imagery in his dream, Freud was able to interpret the dream as representing an attempt by his mind to protect itself from the disappointment generated by his inability to heal his patient. From this experience, Freud concluded that parts of the human mind worked outside of our conscious awareness, and that dreams had meaning. Freud believed that, at the core, dreams represented a disguised fulfillment of suppressed or repressed wishes. This definition of Freud’s emphasizes two key points: first, that dreams are disguised, and second, that the wishes represented in dreams are repressed. The logical conclusion Freud arrived at was that, by analyzing dreams, the meaning of the dream could be lifted into conscious awareness, and the dreamer liberated from self-censoring repression. Freud concluded that dreams were “the royal road to the unconscious,” and suggested that they existed to keep our mental troubles from waking us up at night. Freud further proposed that the interpretation of dreams might be used as a means to understand, and ultimately treat, mental maladies . In his effort to understand dreams, Freud developed psychoanalysis, laying the foundation for all modern psychotherapies.

A century later, few psychoanalysts believe dreams primarily exist to protect sleep, but the central idea, that dreams are messages from a part of our mind outside our conscious control, is stronger than ever. And scientists are finding that dreams provide many insights into the mind’s inner workings. In the last few years, brain-imaging techniques have shown what parts of the brain are active during dreaming.

Scientists are discovering that, when people dream, the parts of the brain involved in recognizing objects and processing images, and the areas involved in processing emotions and emotional memories, are as active as they are when the mind is awake, which explains why dreams can feel so realistic and powerful. And both experience and research show that logical thought is almost completely absent from dreams, which helps to explain their irrational nature.

Freud’s book marked the real beginnings of scientific research into the mind, and the development of truer understanding of mental health problems. Without Freud, neurology might have remained limited to mapping neural connections, and psychology might never have developed insights that every day save millions of people from the misery of mental illness.

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Look at the word which in paragraph 5. The word which in the passage refers to

AnswerChoose the correct answer.Choose all that apply. Correct Partially correct Incorrect Don't Know

  1. A
    Correct Answer
    the awake mind
  2. B
    Correct Answer
    the fact that parts of the brain remain active during dreams
  3. C
    Correct Answer
    the realistic feeling of dreams
  4. D
    Correct Answer
    the processing of images and emotions
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